Written by Mark Cartwright, published on 06 January 2013 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. it is composed of upright beams (posts) supporting horizontal beams (lintels). However, it was from the 5th century BCE that the Greek amphitheatre took on its recognisable and most influential form. The main lines of the Parthenon are all curved. This form was adapted to the construction of hypostyle halls within the larger temples. In this characteristic environment, the ancient Greek architects constructed buildings that were marked by the precision of detail. architects outfit, architects career, architects band, architects projet, … They are referred to as dentils, meaning "teeth", but their origin is clearly in narrow wooden slats which supported the roof of a timber structure. Historians divide ancient Greek civilization into two eras, the Hellenic period (from around 900 BC to the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC), and the Hellenistic period (323 BC to 30 AD). Other structures which were constructed near temples were monumental entrance gates (such as the Propylaia of Athens’ acropolis) and small buildings to house dedications, often from specific city-states. The ancient Greeks perceived order in the universe, and in turn, applied order and reason to their creations. Architectural ornament of fired and painted clay. Remnants of bouleuterion survive at Athens, Olympia and Miletus, the latter having held up to 1200 people. [2] Small circular temples, tholoi were also constructed, as well as small temple-like buildings that served as treasuries for specific groups of donors. Hence temples were placed on hilltops, their exteriors designed as a visual focus of gatherings and processions, while theatres were often an enhancement of a naturally occurring sloping site where people could sit, rather than a containing structure. [25], A few of these temples are very large, with several, such as the Temple of Zeus Olympus and the Olympians at Athens being well over 300 feet in length, but most were less than half this size. [32], The earliest finds of roof tiles of the Archaic period in Greece are documented from a very restricted area around Corinth, where fired tiles began to replace thatched roofs at the temples of Apollo and Poseidon between 700 and 650 BC. Ein griechischer Tempel wurde im Rechteck gebaut. Famous examples include those at Nemea and Olympia which had seating capacities of 30,000 and 45,000 spectators respectively. Ancient Greek architecture is best known from its temples, many of which are found throughout the region, and the Parthenon is a prime example of this, mostly as ruins but many substantially intact. Feb 25, 2019 - This Pin was discovered by Ben Pollak. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. Examples abound throughout the Greek world and many theatres have survived remarkably well. The formal vocabulary of ancient Greek architecture, in particular the division of architectural style into three defined orders: the Doric Order, the Ionic Order and the Corinthian Order, was to have a profound effect on Western architecture of later periods. It grew directly out of the Ionic in the mid 5th century BC, and was initially of much the same style and proportion, but distinguished by its more ornate capitals. Cartwright, M. (2013, January 06). Olympia, Art - Pediments of the temple of Zeus The triglyphs are vertically grooved like the Doric columns, and retain the form of the wooden beams that would once have supported the roof. This rectilinear structure borrows from the Late Helladic, Mycenaean Megaron, which contained a central throne room, vestibule, and porch. It is likely that many early houses and temples were constructed with an open porch or "pronaos" above which rose a low pitched gable or pediment. Temples, treasuries, and stoas then, with their various orders and arrangements of columns have provided the most tangible architectural legacy from the Greek world, and it is perhaps ironic that the architecture of Greek religious buildings has been so widely adopted in the modern world for such secular buildings as court houses and government buildings. However, returning to the standard Greek temple layout, the rectangular peristyle of columns (8 x 17 in the case of the Parthenon, 6 x 13 for the temple of Zeus at Olympia) surrounded an inner chamber or cella with the whole standing on a stepped platform or stylobate and the interior paved with rectangular slabs. Nov 17, 2014 - Ludwig Lange: Akropolis von Athen zur Zeit Perikles 444 Chr… Kunstdruck, Leinwandbild, gerahmtes Bild, Glasbild und Tapete. Its people built citadels, fortifications and tombs rather than palaces, and decorated their pottery with bands of marching soldiers rather than octopus and seaweed. Often placed at right-angles to create an enclosed open space, stoas were used for all manner of purposes such as meeting places and storage. The Pergamon Altar (c. 180–160 BC) has a frieze (120 metres long by 2.3 metres high) of figures in very high relief. [12] This development had a direct effect on the sculptural decoration of temples, as many of the greatest extant works of ancient Greek sculpture once adorned temples,[13] and many of the largest recorded statues of the age, such as the lost chryselephantine statues of Zeus at the Temple of Zeus at Olympia and Athena at the Parthenon, Athens, both over 40 feet high, were once housed in them. These Ionic-style friezes around the naos are sometimes found on Doric buildings, notably the Parthenon. [1] Remnants of Archaic architectural sculpture (700–500 BC) exist from the early 6th century BC with the earliest surviving pedimental sculpture being fragments of a Gorgon flanked by heraldic panthers from the centre of the pediment of the Artemis Temple of Corfu. The ancient architects took a pragmatic approach to the apparent "rules", simply extending the width of the last two metopes at each end of the building. [46], In the three orders of ancient Greek architecture, the sculptural decoration, be it a simple half round astragal, a frieze of stylised foliage or the ornate sculpture of the pediment, is all essential to the architecture of which it is a part. In conclusion then, we may say that ancient Greek architecture has provided not only many of the staple features of modern western architecture, but it has also given the world truly magnificent buildings which have literally stood the test of time and continue to inspire admiration and awe. The largest temples, mainly Ionic and Corinthian, but including the Doric Temple of the Olympian Zeus, Agrigento, were between 90–120 metres (approx. It did not reach a clearly defined form until the mid 5th century BC. veränderten sich die 300–390 feet) in length. The earlier use of wooden pillars eventually evolved into the Doric column in stone. Jhd v. Chr bis ca. 509–510, "Re-contextualized Antiquity: Interpretative VR Visualisation of Ancient Art and Architecture", The Foundations of Classical Architecture Part Two: Greek Classicism, Paleochristian and Byzantine monuments of Thessaloniki, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ancient_Greek_architecture&oldid=988978992, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The Temple of Zeus Olympius at Agrigentum, is termed. Marilyn Y. Goldberg, "Greek Temples and Chinese Roofs". [41], The architrave of the Ionic order is sometimes undecorated, but more often rises in three outwardly-stepped bands like overlapping timber planks. [9] This architectural form did not carry over into the architecture of ancient Greece, but reappeared about 400 BC in the interior of large monumental tombs such as the Lion Tomb at Knidos (c. 350 BC). Nur deshalb sind uns noch viele griechische Tempel erhalten geblieben. These were used for both public meetings as well as dramatic performances. The eastern pediment shows a moment of stillness and "impending drama" before the beginning of a chariot race, the figures of Zeus and the competitors being severe and idealised representations of the human form. Dieser Pinnwand folgen 152 Nutzer auf Pinterest. Cartwright, Mark. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. This, at least was the interpretation of the historian Pausanias looking at the Temple of Hera at Olympia in the 2nd century AD. 11.06.2020 - Architects graphisme #modernarchitecture #pinterestkeywords #architecture. Manera JÓNICA de vestir [23], Every Greek town had an open-air theatre. The Ionic entablature often carries a frieze with richly carved sculpture. [46] The acroteria were sculptured by Timotheus, except for that at the centre of the east pediment which is the work of the architect. Limestone was readily available and easily worked. Weitere Ideen zu Bildung, Bildgeschichte, Wimmelbild. Epochen 1.1. Temple of Hera, Selinusby Mark Cartwright (CC BY-NC-SA). The horizontal spread of a flat timber plate across the top of a column is a common device in wooden construction, giving a thin upright a wider area on which to bear the lintel, while at the same time reinforcing the load-bearing strength of the lintel itself. This fluting or grooving of the columns is a retention of an element of the original wooden architecture.[25]. Hier kannst du sie vorschlagen! "Greek Architecture." Temples served as the location of a cult image and as a storage place or strong room for the treasury associated with the cult of the god in question, and as a place for devotees of the god to leave their votive offerings, such as statues, helmets and weapons. Entdecke (und sammle) deine eigenen Pins bei Pinterest. It is designed to be viewed frontally but the capitals at the corners of buildings are modified with an additional scroll so as to appear regular on two adjoining faces. At either end of the building the pediment rises from the cornice, framed by moulding of similar form.[39]. This is particularly so in the case of temples where each building appears to have been conceived as a sculptural entity within the landscape, most often raised on high ground so that the elegance of its proportions and the effects of light on its surfaces might be viewed from all angles. Hier kannst du sie vorschlagen! The tiny stylised bronzes of the Geometric period gave way to life-sized highly formalised monolithic representation in the Archaic period. 25-mar-2014 - ** ESCULTURA ::: HERA de SAMOS, h. 570 a.C. - Imagen cilíndrica de gran tamaño. Many of these refinements are invisible to the naked eye, and even today only sophisticated measuring devices can detect the minute differences in angles and dimensions. The construction of many houses employed walls of sun-dried clay bricks or wooden framework filled with fibrous material such as straw or seaweed covered with clay or plaster, on a base of stone which protected the more vulnerable elements from damp. [7], Ancient Greek buildings of timber, clay and plaster construction were probably roofed with thatch. Towns were also equipped with a public fountain where water could be collected for household use. Architects used sophisticated geometry and optical tricks to present buildings as perfectly straight and harmonious. The successive styles of Neoclassical architecture and Greek Revival architecture followed and adapted ancient Greek styles closely. Sept. 24, 2020. The Ionic order is recognized by its voluted capital, in which a curved echinus of similar shape to that of the Doric order, but decorated with stylised ornament, is surmounted by a horizontal band that scrolls under to either side, forming spirals or volutes similar to those of the nautilus shell or ram's horn. Ancient Greek architecture of the most formal type, for temples and other public buildings, is divided stylistically into three Classical orders, first described by the Roman architectural writer Vitruvius. William Rostoker; Elizabeth Gebhard, "The Reproduction of Rooftiles for the Archaic Temple of Poseidon at Isthmia, Greece", This page was last edited on 16 November 2020, at 10:20. Also, there was often no particular effort at town planning which usually resulted in a maze of narrow chaotic streets, even in such great cities as Athens. Weitere Ideen zu Griechische kunst, Griechische keramik, Antike. [49], The reliefs and three-dimensional sculpture which adorned the frieze and pediments, respectively, of the Parthenon, are the lifelike products of the High Classical style (450–400 BC) and were created under the direction of the sculptor Phidias. Cite This Work Other architectural forms that are still in evidence are the processional gateway (propylon), the public square (agora) surrounded by storied colonnade (stoa), the town council building (bouleuterion), the public monument, the monumental tomb (mausoleum) and the stadium. It appears that, although the architecture of ancient Greece was initially of wooden construction, the early builders did not have the concept of the diagonal truss as a stabilising member. The columns of a temple support a structure that rises in two main stages, the entablature and the pediment. In addition, the Greek concern with simplicity, proportion, perspective, and harmony in their buildings would go on to greatly influence architects in the Roman world and provide the foundation for the classical architectural orders which would dominate the western world from the Renaissance to the present day. The agora or market place of many ancient Greek towns would be composed of a large open square surrounded by a stoa. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/Greek_Architecture/. The Classical period was marked by a rapid development towards idealised but increasingly lifelike depictions of gods in human form. Ancient History Encyclopedia. License. With the rise of stone architecture came the appearance of fired ceramic roof tiles. There is a clear division between the architecture of the preceding Mycenaean and Minoan cultures and that of the ancient Greeks, the techniques and an understanding of their style being lost when these civilisations fell.[4]. Early architectural sculptors found difficulty in creating satisfactory sculptural compositions in the tapering triangular space. The indication is that initially all the rafters were supported directly by the entablature, walls and hypostyle, rather than on a trussed wooden frame, which came into use in Greek architecture only in the 3rd century BC. However, unlike earlier cultures, the man was no longer perceived as being threatened by nature, but as its sublime product. However, by 600 BC, the gods were often represented by large statues and it was necessary to provide a building in which each of these could be housed. Minoan is the name given by modern historians to the culture of the people of ancient Crete, known for its elaborate and richly decorated palaces, and for its pottery painted with floral and marine motifs. The roofing material for the substantial house was tile. Oct. 28, 2020. your own Pins on Pinterest The posts and beams divided the walls into regular compartments which could be left as openings, or filled with sun dried bricks, lathes or straw and covered with clay daub or plaster. [41] The columns are fluted with narrow, shallow flutes that do not meet at a sharp edge but have a flat band or fillet between them. Many temples also carried architectural sculpture arranged to tell a narrative. Blog. Bitte immer nur genau eine Deutsch-Griechisch-Übersetzung eintragen (Formatierung siehe Guidelines), möglichst mit einem guten Beleg im Kommentarfeld.Wichtig: Bitte hilf auch bei der Prüfung anderer Übersetzungsvorschläge mit!Prüfung [9] The earliest forms of columns in Greece seem to have developed independently. Early 8th century BCE temples were so constructed and had thatch roofs. Sometimes a decorative frieze occurred around the upper part of the naos rather than on the exterior of the building. Above the architrave is a second horizontal stage called the frieze. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Web. Wider mouldings include one with tongue-like or pointed leaf shapes, which are grooved and sometimes turned upward at the tip, and "egg and dart" moulding which alternates ovoid shapes with narrow pointy ones. Weitere Ideen zu Antike, Zweistromland, Archäologie. Though he was descended from the local people, Mausolus spoke Greek and admired the Greek way of life, its government and democratic traditions. Back to school tools to make transitioning to the new year totally seamless above: Capital of the Corinthian Order showing foliate decoration and vertical volutes. [8] At the same time, the respect for human intellect demanded a reason, and promoted a passion for enquiry, logic, challenge, and problem-solving. Greek architects created the first three and hugely influenced the latter two which were composites rather than genuine innovations. 27.03.2014 - 1940, Copenhagen (DK) via #1, #2 © Kim Høltermand In a large building, this space contains columns to support the roof, the architectural form being known as hypostyle. [20], Greek towns of substantial size also had a palaestra or a gymnasium, the social centre for male citizens which included spectator areas, baths, toilets and club rooms. Masonry of all types was used for ancient Greek buildings, including rubble, but the finest ashlar masonry was usually employed for temple walls, in regular courses and large sizes to minimise the joints. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. This is a collection of select ancient Greece living places, varying from large cities to simple homes, and from Stone Age to Roman times. The light is often extremely bright, with both the sky and the sea vividly blue. The sculpture is always located in several predetermined areas, the metopes and the pediment. Cities, Towns, Villages, Homes. It is composed of three parts. The signs of the original timber nature of the architecture were maintained in the stone buildings. Alternately, the spaces might be filled with rubble. Many larger houses, such as those at Delos, were built of stone and plastered. An order, properly speaking, is a combination of a certain style of column with or without a base and an entablature (what the column supports: the architrave, fri… Bei griechische Architektur handelt es sich um Griechenland und dessen Siedlungsgebiete auf den ägäischen Inseln, das griechisch besiedelte Kleinasien sowie Unteritalien und Sizilien richtete sich nach gewissen Vorschriften wurden nach und nach zu spez. So too, temples from Ionia tended to differ from the norm, usually having a double colonnade (dipteral). Helen Gardner refers to its "unsurpassable excellence", to be surveyed, studied and emulated by architects of later ages. In the case of Ionic and Corinthian architecture, the relief decoration runs in a continuous band, but in the Doric order, it is divided into sections called metopes, which fill the spaces between vertical rectangular blocks called triglyphs. An order, properly speaking, is a combination of a certain style of column with or without a base and an entablature (what the column supports: the architrave, frieze, and cornice). Correct water drainage and the use of continuous bases on foundations above various layers of fill material (conglomerate soft rocks, soil, marble chips, charcoal, and even sheepskins) allowed large Greek buildings to be built in the best positions regardless of terrain and to withstand the rigours of weather and earthquake over centuries. The part of the capital that rises from the column itself is called the echinus. Greek architects provided some of the finest and most distinctive buildings in the entire Ancient World and some of their structures, such as temples, theatres, and stadia, would become staple features of towns and cities from antiquity onwards. The most obvious adjustment is to the profile of columns, which narrow from base to top. The Doric order is recognised by its capital, of which the echinus is like a circular cushion rising from the top of the column to the square abacus on which rest the lintels. Some Greek temples appear to have been oriented astronomically. [23] Other buildings associated with sports include the hippodrome for horse racing, of which only remnants have survived, and the stadium for foot racing, 600 feet in length, of which examples exist at Olympia, Delphi, Epidarus and Ephesus, while the Panathinaiko Stadium in Athens, which seats 45,000 people, was restored in the 19th century and was used in the 1896, 1906 and 2004 Olympic Games. The Greek word for the family or household, oikos, is also the name for the house. Another lasting Greek architectural contribution to world culture was the stadium. The Doric entablature is in three parts, the architrave, the frieze and the cornice. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 06 Jan 2013. Fragments of the eastern pediment survive, showing the Sack of Troy. Oct 30, 2019 - Set of Pillars ClipArt. The ratio of capital height to diameter is generally about 1.16:1. [5] Worship, like many other activities, was done in the community, in the open. Another distinctive Greek contribution to world culture was the amphitheatre. [39], The columns of an early Doric temple such as the Temple of Apollo at Syracuse, Sicily, may have a height to base diameter ratio of only 4:1 and a column height to entablature ratio of 2:1, with relatively crude details. The Temple of Asclepius at Epidauros had sculpture by Timotheos working with the architect Theodotos. [5], The home of the gods was thought to be Olympus, the highest mountain in Greece. During the later (Hellenistic) period, Greek culture spread as a result of Alexander's conquest of other lands, and later as a result of the rise of the Roman Empire, which adopted much of Greek culture.[1][8]. Bitte immer nur genau eine Deutsch-Griechisch-Übersetzung eintragen (Formatierung siehe Guidelines), möglichst mit einem guten Beleg im Kommentarfeld.Wichtig: Bitte hilf auch bei der Prüfung anderer Übersetzungsvorschläge mit! [33] As a side-effect, it has been assumed that the new stone and tile construction also ushered in the end of overhanging eaves in Greek architecture, as they made the need for an extended roof as rain protection for the mudbrick walls obsolete. Masonry walls were employed for temples from about 600 BC onwards. The flutes meet at sharp edges called arrises. One final function of the stoa in Hellenistic times was in the gymnasium and palaistra complexes, notably at the great sanctuaries of Olympia, Delphi, and Nemea. [1] The first signs of the particular artistic character that defines ancient Greek architecture are to be seen in the pottery of the Dorian Greeks from the 10th century BC. [7] These outer columns are both slightly wider than their neighbours and are slightly closer than any of the others.[38]. Pediments, friezes, and metopes all carried sculpture, often in the round or in high relief and always richly decorated (with paint and bronze additions), which retold stories from Greek mythology or great episodes in that particular city’s history. They were much larger than modern roof tiles, being up to 90 cm (35.43 in) long, 70 cm (27.56 in) wide, 3–4 cm (1.18–1.57 in) thick and weighing around 30 kg (66 lb) apiece. [32], Vaults and arches were not generally used, but begin to appear in tombs (in a "beehive" or cantilevered form such as used in Mycenaea) and occasionally, as an external feature, exedrae of voussoired construction from the 5th century BC. Many houses centred on a wide passage or "pasta" which ran the length of the house and opened at one side onto a small courtyard which admitted light and air. v. Chr. During the Hellenistic period, Doric conventions of solidity and masculinity dropped away, with the slender and unfluted columns reaching a height to diameter ratio of 7.5:1.[39]. Ancient Greek architecture came from the Greek-speaking people (Hellenic people) whose culture flourished on the Greek mainland, the Peloponnese, the Aegean Islands, and in colonies in Anatolia and Italy for a period from about 900 BC until the 1st century AD, with the earliest remaining architectural works dating from around 600 BC.. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. Already at this period it is created with a sense of proportion, symmetry and balance not apparent in similar pottery from Crete and Mycenae. Hier kannst du sie vorschlagen! You can also upload and share your favorite Hanging Gardens of Babylon wallpapers. Jetzt günstig kaufen - auch auf Rechnung! Tempelbau 3. 16.05.2019 - Erkunde Isisnofrets Pinnwand „Antike und Altertum“ auf Pinterest. The light of Greece may be another important factor in the development of the particular character of ancient Greek architecture. [2] Nikolaus Pevsner refers to "the plastic shape of the [Greek] temple ... placed before us with a physical presence more intense, more alive than that of any later building".[3]. This was a vertical fluted column shaft, thinner at its top, with no base and a simple capital below a square abacus. Benjamin Robert Haydon described the reclining figure of Dionysus as "... the most heroic style of art, combined with all the essential detail of actual life". Doric columns are almost always cut with grooves, known as "fluting", which run the length of the column and are usually 20 in number, although sometimes fewer. These early roof tiles showed an S-shape, with the pan and cover tile forming one piece. Cut Silhouette. [39] This is more pronounced in earlier examples. [27] Temples were constructed without windows, the light to the naos entering through the door. [37] Banister Fletcher calculated that the stylobate curves upward so that its centres at either end rise about 65 millimetres (2.6 inches) above the outer corners, and 110 mm (4.3 in) on the longer sides. The second important type of building that survives all over the Hellenic world is the open-air theatre, with the earliest dating from around 525–480 BC. Frieze of stylised alternating palms and reeds, and a cornice decorated with "egg and dart" moulding. [41], Like the Doric order, the Ionic order retains signs of having its origins in wooden architecture. A slightly greater adjustment has been made to the entablature. Such refinements indicate that Greek temples were, therefore, not only functional structures but also that the building itself, as a whole, was symbolic and an important element in the civic landscape. The bouleuterion was a large public building with a hypostyle hall that served as a court house and as a meeting place for the town council (boule). [42], The Corinthian order does not have its origin in wooden architecture. Later, from the 5th century BCE, better houses were built in stone, usually with plastered exterior and frescoed interior walls. According to Vitruvius, the capital was invented by a bronze founder, Callimachus of Corinth, who took his inspiration from a basket of offerings that had been placed on a grave, with a flat tile on top to protect the goods. Kontakt. [50] The pedimental sculpture represents the Gods of Olympus, while the frieze shows the Panathenaic procession and ceremonial events that took place every four years to honour the titular Goddess of Athens. Ein großer Fortschritt war der Wechsel des Baumaterials im 7. As with Minoan architecture, ancient Greek domestic architecture centred on open spaces or courtyards surrounded by colonnades. [14], The religion of ancient Greece was a form of nature worship that grew out of the beliefs of earlier cultures. [8] The natural elements were personified as gods of the complete human form, and very human behaviour. [26][45] From the Late Classical period, acroteria were sometimes sculptured figures (see Architectural sculpture). Reliefs never decorate walls in an arbitrary way. One of the largest is the theatre of Argos which had a capacity for 20,000 spectators, and one of the best preserved is the theatre of Epidaurus which continues every summer to host major dramatic performances. Blog. The theatre was usually set in a hillside outside the town, and had rows of tiered seating set in a semicircle around the central performance area, the orchestra. This period is thus often referred to as a Dark Age. Colonnades encircling buildings, or surrounding courtyards provided shelter from the sun and from sudden winter storms.[5]. Initially, though, wood would have been used for not only such basic architectural elements as columns but the entire buildings themselves. Formalised bands of motifs such as alternating forms known as egg-and-dart were a feature of the Ionic entablatures, along with the bands of dentils. [35], On the stylobate, often completely surrounding the naos, stand rows of columns. [26][44][47], Architectural sculpture showed a development from early Archaic examples through Severe Classical, High Classical, Late Classical and Hellenistic. [26] A door of the Ionic Order at the Erechtheion (17 feet high and 7.5 feet wide at the top) retains many of its features intact, including mouldings, and an entablature supported on console brackets. The Treasury of the Siphnians is built at, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. Ancient Greek architecture is distinguished by its highly formalised characteristics, both of structure and decoration. From the late 7th century BCE, temples, in particular, slowly began to be converted into more durable stone edifices; some even had a mix of the two materials. 04.05.2020 - Erkunde nickkippes0715s Pinnwand „Jhaffat Khabib“ auf Pinterest. [39] A triglyph is located above the centre of each capital, and above the centre of each lintel.
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